Quantcast
Search the Site

Gluten-Free Soft Corn Tortillas: Make It Or Buy It? (new blog series!)

Gluten-Free Soft Corn Tortillas: Make It Or Buy It? (new blog series!)

In my new cookbook, Shoestring Quick & Easy, we use two main strategies to make things, well, Quick & Easy: 1. Kitchen Shortcuts, which are all about using slightly different techniques to get from here to there in less time and with less fuss; and 2. Making smart use of some Store-Bought GF Packaged Products. Since I really want you to get the most of My Cookbooks, and the most out of this blog, and since I know that most of us are not ladies (and men!) of leisure, I’m introducing a new blog series called Make It … Or Buy It?

How “Make It … Or Buy It?” Works

I do the heavy-lifting, making homemade versions of these products, then comparing them to the best example I can find of their store-bought counterparts in 4 categories, which will be summarized in a simple grid:

1. Ease: On a scale of 1-10. For the homemade version, that includes everything from the time it takes to the difficulty level to the availability of the different ingredients. For the store-bought version, that includes ease of finding the product and ease of storing and using it, too.

2. Quality: On a scale of 1-10. Quality is pretty self-explanatory.

3. Taste: On a scale of 1-10. Taste includes smell, taste, mouth-feel, you get the idea.

4. Cost: Cost is actual, and preferably by individual unit. It will be like the Shoestring Savings in My Cookbooks. So useful!

What Products and Recipes Will Be Tested & Compared?

The first product in the series (today!) is Gluten-Free Soft Corn Tortillas. I also plan to test and compare different gluten-free crackers, cookies, breads of different sorts, and plenty of other kinds of gluten-free baked goods. Even boxed cake mixes!

Most of the recipes for the homemade versions will be on the blog. Some will be in My Cookbooks. Please don’t yell at me when they’re only in cookbooks. If you prick me, do I not bleed?

La Banderita Corn Tortillas are the specific reliably gluten-free brand I chose for this first entry in the series. There, frankly, aren’t as many reliably gluten-free brands of soft corn tortillas as I would like. Most, like Mission Tortillas, for example, are at real risk of cross-contamination despite having no gluten ingredients. La Banderita is somewhat widely-available, at least near me and in some regular grocery stores, and is of relatively good quality. I use them frequently, and they’re often pressed into service as my lunch. I roll them with some turkey and cheese, spread some hummus on ’em, then put them in the toaster oven. They fare pretty well, although you can see that they peel when you roll them and again when you heat them. Whether I use the microwave, the oven or the toaster, as soon as I roll & heat them, the very top layer peels off. I really like how they stay soft, though, and that they have a nice long shelf life in the refrig. There is a faint glue-like aftertaste, though, that I can’t ignore (and believe me I’ve tried). And you can’t beat the cost with a stick. 7¢ a tortilla!

Gluten-Free Fresh Corn Tortillas are a true favorite or mine, as they are little more than gluten-free masa harina corn flour (a precooked cornmeal), salt and water. I can even sometimes find Bob’s Red Mill GF masa harina in my regular grocery store, which certainly makes things easier. And you can’t beat the taste and quality of freshly-made corn tortillas. But instead of opening up a package, you’re stuck with the 15 minutes or so that it takes to reconstitute the masa and roll out and cook the tortillas. It’s a super easy recipe, but it’s a recipe. Not a package to open. And since gluten-free masa harina is a bit of a specialty product, this is one of those rare instances where making the product yourself is more expensive (even twice as expensive!) than buying it. Keep in mind, though, that each fresh, homemade corn tortilla is thicker and more substantial than each packaged soft corn tortilla, so it’s something of an unbalanced comparison.

Here’s the summary:

My Make It … Or Buy It? GF Soft Corn Tortillas Conclusion

BOTH. Make it & buy it. Make it sometimes, when you really want your tortillas to take center stage in a meal and you have the time to fuss a wee bit. Buy it often, to have on hand for a quick snack, breakfast burrito and/or lunch wrap. It has its limitations, but it also has its place. I always have a package in my refrig, and I’m always glad I do. But I also always have a stock of GF masa harina. Even raw, it just smells … like Mexico to me.

So, what do you think? Is this going to be a useful series? If there is a particular product you’d like to see in this series, let me know! I really think this will be a useful tool, to help you save money and shop smart.

 

Love,
Me
P.S. If you haven’t yet, please pick up a copy of both of My Cookbooks! I can’t keep the blog going without your support!

Share on FacebookShare on YummlyTweet about this on TwitterPin on Pinterest

If you liked this recipe, you'll love my new book!

Gluten-Free Small Bites

100 irresistible one-bite recipes—for everything from parties to portable meals

Learn More

  • Martina9elp

    Looking forward to this series. I always buy my corn tortillas only because I have access to a tortilleria on every corner here in West Texas.

    • gfshoestring

      So lucky, Martina. If I could buy those, I’m sure I’d never bother making my own either!
      xoxo Nicole

  • Martina9elp

    Looking forward to this series. I always buy my corn tortillas only because I have access to a tortilleria on every corner here in West Texas.

  • Jaayimee

    I’m looking forward to this as well.

  • Jaayimee

    I’m looking forward to this as well.

  • I love this idea! I’m still in love with your GF flour test, so thanks for keeping this awesome content coming. I agree with your assessment, and can’t wait to try making my own corn tortillas, once I get my hands on some masa harina. But scary about Mission. I need to check my stores and see if they sell La Banderita.

    • It’s worth hunting down some GF masa harina, Dana. You live in NYC! It can’t be too too hard to find. You’ll be so glad you did – first, corn tortillas, then, pupusas!
      xoxo Nicole

  • lettergirl

    I think this is a great idea for a series, Nicole.  I started making homemade tortillas a couple of years ago when I realized (at the last minute of course) that I was out of the pre-made ones.  It was a revelation!  I do keep a package on hand for convenience but you just can’t beat the homemade ones for taste.  Incidentally, yours is the only blog I actually check every.single.day.

    • So you, too, are in the make ’em AND buy ’em camp. It’s nice to know how to make them, and nice to be able to whip up a batch, but also nice to know the premade ones are on hand for ’emergencies.’ 
      Aw, shucks. I’m really flattered you visit every day. I will continue to endeavor to make it worth your while. :)
      xoxo Nicole

  • Live70x7

    Totally useful to a new GF compadre! (And I already have both your books and love them!)

  • Eabecker

    I appreciate all that you do, both in cooking advise and getting me to laugh when all I want to do is cry when I run into a GF cooking snafu. I follow your advice religiously. Lol!! I am ordering your cookbook for my birthday gift and also getting one for my 17 yr old who is the GF one in our house. She has to move out EVENTUALLY and I want her to be ready to spread her wings and fly…gluten free!

    • Marian

      This will be very useful. I always said I would never make crackers. What a pain in the butt! But Sunday I made the new cookbook’s “goldfish” style crackers. They were quick, easy and delicious – gone in less than an hour except for the stash I hid for school snack. I know the comparison of those to the Schar ones will win all categories for me. I do wonder about graham crackers like someone else suggested. And maybe a closer look at granola/protein bars? I’ve never made noodles but I have a very hard time finding lasagna noodles here and sometimes just use corn tortillas instead because they’re so easy to make, so maybe your thoughts on make vs. buy lasagna noodles?

      • gfshoestring

        Love it, Marian! I’m so glad you were willing to give those a try, since it will open up a whole new category of recipes for you. I think comparing those to the Schar variety of ‘goldfish-style crackers’ is a really great idea. I was actually looking for those today after having seen this comment of yours, and am having some trouble finding them! That comparison is on the list for this series, for sure. I have a recipe on the blog for fresh lasagna noodles (with a how-to for a pasta machine), and I have to say straight up that it tastes amazing, but makes a mess and is very time-consuming! Tinkyada makes lasagna noodles, so I buy those and get good results with them. I can usually find them in Whole Foods, and occasionally order them online. I don’t use them often since they’re expensive, but much easier than making my own!
        xoxo Nicole

    • gfshoestring

      Sometimes I laugh and sometimes I cry, Eabecker! I’d much rather help you laugh, but if you have to cry, I can be a shoulder for that too. It can be so frustrating! Your 17-year-old would definitely do well to learn to bake for herself. You’re a good mom!
      xoxo Nicole

  • Eabecker

    I appreciate all that you do, both in cooking advise and getting me to laugh when all I want to do is cry when I run into a GF cooking snafu. I follow your advice religiously. Lol!! I am ordering your cookbook for my birthday gift and also getting one for my 17 yr old who is the GF one in our house. She has to move out EVENTUALLY and I want her to be ready to spread her wings and fly…gluten free!

  • Bren

    This is SO helpful!  I have both your books and everyone to whom I gave your first one as a gift will be getting your NEW one as a gift.  I have been through a number of GF cookbooks and yours are two of a very small handful I kept.

    I love that you are comparing the different features and benefits of homemade vs. purchased.  It’s especially helpful to know what it is about the differences between the two that you find most important.  For instance, I can’t STAND when my tortillas “unravel” whereas the DH doesn’t give a whit. So this was particularly useful since I just ordered a tortilla press and now it’s completely justifiable – HAH!

    Thanks again for your books and your site.  I moderate a local GF community and I ALWAYS tell them to start with you for practical information, delicious recipes and great ideas!

    • Bren, I love your point that different things are important to different people so the breakdown is really important. I try to be as objective as possible when rating products, since my sensibility is not necessarily the same as yours. But it’s even more interesting that your sensibility is so different from your husband’s. So interesting!
      Thank you so much for spreading the word about the blog and books in your GF community. Local community sites are really the unsung heroes of the gluten-free world!
      Oh, and you will love having that tortilla press. Totally worth it!
      xoxo Nicole

  • Antony Galbraith

    I buy these tortillas all the time.  After living with a mexican friend for several years I learned how to properly prepare tortillas so they don’t break.  You need to heat them very briefly on a  hot iron skillet.  No oil, just medium hit heat for 10-15 seconds on each side.  I haven’t had a problem with splitting tortillas since I was taught that (unless of course I am greedy and overfill them and they burst from the pressure–kind of like how I feel after I can’t stop eating them!). However, I think it is well worth the effort to make your own tortillas (something my friend hated to do) because they taste soooo good. I sometimes would get some from my friend’s mother, so I know how much better they taste. I am looking forward to trying this recipe! Thank you!

  • Millersabode

    I like this idea of testing products. One product I would like is graham crackers. Thanks for all you do.

    • Elizadarcy

      Wow, thanks for sharing!  Can’t wait for the next one.

    • gfshoestring

      You got it, Millers. A graham cracker comparison is on the list! Thanks. :)
      xoxo Nicole

  • Millersabode

    I like this idea of testing products. One product I would like is graham crackers. Thanks for all you do.

    • You got it, Millers. A graham cracker comparison is on the list! Thanks. :)
      xoxo Nicole

  • Elizadarcy

    Wow, thanks for sharing!  Can’t wait for the next one.

  • Kaitlin Martin

    I found that I couldn’t deal with the aftertaste and brittleness of the store bought corn tortillas so I always make them. I use your recipe for the blend of corn and flour and they’re absolutely wonderful every time. 

    • Mary Hall

      You had me on quality and taste–both hands-down beat ease when talking about food, especially since I’ve become gluten-free.  Since I’ve forgone all gluten, I’ve had to “relearn” how not only to eat, but how to cook and bake.  The “ease” part will come with time and experience (this I know–I’ve done it before with gluten, and I’m confident I can do it without gluten), but the quality and taste, those are two areas I’m not willing to compromise with.  I’ll be giving this recipe a try.

      • gfshoestring

        That is absolutely true, Mary. Time and experience are all you need to master any of these recipes and techniques. You 100% cannot beat the quality and taste of the fresh corn tortillas. No contest!
        xoxo Nicole

    • gfshoestring

      Oh, the soft corn tortillas, Kaitlin? I forgot about that recipe! I love that one, too. Thanks for reminding me!
      xoxo Nicole

  • kizzl

    I found that I couldn’t deal with the aftertaste and brittleness of the store bought corn tortillas so I always make them. I use your recipe for the blend of corn and flour and they’re absolutely wonderful every time. 

  • Mary Hall

    You had me on quality and taste–both hands-down beat ease when talking about food, especially since I’ve become gluten-free.  Since I’ve forgone all gluten, I’ve had to “relearn” how not only to eat, but how to cook and bake.  The “ease” part will come with time and experience (this I know–I’ve done it before with gluten, and I’m confident I can do it without gluten), but the quality and taste, those are two areas I’m not willing to compromise with.  I’ll be giving this recipe a try.

  • Lisa

    Making them will also help us to avoid eating genetically modified foods!  thanks for sharing

  • Lisa

    Making them will also help us to avoid eating genetically modified foods!  thanks for sharing

  • Jennifer S.

    I too am looking forward to this series – thank you for this!

    I am a busy working mom – so buying this is in the cards for me.  I made your taquitos last weekend and they were a big hit!

    I would like to see comparisons on pastas – maybe not between making it and buying it but which ones hold up the best for leftovers and HOW to cook it.  I think you said it was in the new cookbook but I may have missed it.

    • gfshoestring

      Hi, Jennifer! I did mention showing how to boil gluten-free pasta, but it will be on the blog. I make it so often, and always always use this method. The real reason I haven’t posted about it yet is that it’s really hard to be the one boiling the pasta and taking the photos! I will just go for, though, maybe this weekend for posting next week. Sorry for the delay!
      xoxo Nicole
      P.S. So glad you liked the taquitos! Those are the perfect candidate for store-bought corn tortillas. :)

    • Hi, Jennifer! I did mention showing how to boil gluten-free pasta, but it will be on the blog. I make it so often, and always always use this method. The real reason I haven’t posted about it yet is that it’s really hard to be the one boiling the pasta and taking the photos! I will just go for, though, maybe this weekend for posting next week. Sorry for the delay!
      xoxo Nicole
      P.S. So glad you liked the taquitos! Those are the perfect candidate for store-bought corn tortillas. :)

  • Jen

    I’ve done both homemade tortillas and homemade refried beans (ridiculously easy, see my website jenniferbchambers.com for photos) but I can’t get the knack of tortillas. I feel like you have to use a tortilla press, and I’ve not been able to find one in my town- which makes my cost savings worth the glue-y aftertaste, I guess. I love the idea of this series, though- it’s usually better freshly made but sometimes I out-smart myself in the desire to do so, when it can be better just to buy the dang things in the first place! Looking forward to the series~

    • gfshoestring

      You don’t absolutely have to use a press to make tortillas, Jen, but it does make the whole thing easier and quicker. But you can absolutely just roll them out between two sheets of unbleached parchment paper. For corn tortillas, a press makes them a total snap since you don’t even really need to roll them any thinner once you put them in the press. It’s worth ordering a press online!
      xoxo Nicole

  • Annieoels

    Definitely a helpful series!  This is probably the #1 thing I struggle with when contemplating buying a gluten free product or trying to figure out how to make it myself.  Graham crackers would be my choice also for doing a comparison recipe.  My daughter misses them so much since we had to go gluten free.  Thanks for posting this corn tortilla comparison.  This is awesome!!

    • gfshoestring

      Graham crackers is a great idea for a comparison, Annie. I have a recipe already on the blog for chocolate graham crackers, and a recipe for straight-up graham crackers in my first cookbook. I bought a box of the Kinnikinnick graham-style crackers to use for comparison, so it’s on the list!
      xoxo Nicole

  • Annieoels

    Definitely a helpful series!  This is probably the #1 thing I struggle with when contemplating buying a gluten free product or trying to figure out how to make it myself.  Graham crackers would be my choice also for doing a comparison recipe.  My daughter misses them so much since we had to go gluten free.  Thanks for posting this corn tortilla comparison.  This is awesome!!

  • Marian

    This will be very useful. I always said I would never make crackers. What a pain in the butt! But Sunday I made the new cookbook’s “goldfish” style crackers. They were quick, easy and delicious – gone in less than an hour except for the stash I hid for school snack. I know the comparison of those to the Schar ones will win all categories for me. I do wonder about graham crackers like someone else suggested. And maybe a closer look at granola/protein bars? I’ve never made noodles but I have a very hard time finding lasagna noodles here and sometimes just use corn tortillas instead because they’re so easy to make, so maybe your thoughts on make vs. buy lasagna noodles?

  • Et

    I think this is a Great blog!  I’ve been struggling to find good gluten free products in my local stores and when I do, I often wonder if it would have been better if I tried to make it myself.  Well, now you have answered the question for me!!  Thanks so much :-)  

    • gfshoestring

      Thanks, Et! I hope to be able to answer that question in this series. My default has historically been to assume that it is always better to make it yourself, but I expect to find out that that is not always the case!
      xoxo Nicole

  • Et

    I think this is a Great blog!  I’ve been struggling to find good gluten free products in my local stores and when I do, I often wonder if it would have been better if I tried to make it myself.  Well, now you have answered the question for me!!  Thanks so much :-)  

  • Babsbakie

    A consideration would be if the masa harina is non-GMO…..
    Same with purchased corn tortillas…
    That would tip the scale for me in favor of non-GMO

  • I vote make them, because your recipe rocks :)

    • gfshoestring

      Thanks, Jenn! :)
      xoxo Nicole

    • Thanks, Jenn! :)
      xoxo Nicole

  • RebeccaLB

    I adore fresh corn tortillas!  I only use the store bought ones when I can drown them in sauce and shove them in the oven.  I keep mada harina on hand all the time and use it to make tortillas (yes I have a press) and to make Salvadoran pupusas. Picture thick corn tortillas stuffed with cheese, beans, veggies or meats or any combination of them.  I make these ahead and then freeze them – they microwave beautifully.

    • gfshoestring

      I love pupusas, Rebecca! I have a recipe here on the blog that I posted ages ago, and it’s a go-to recipe at my house. I love the versatility of masa harina!
      xoxo Nicole

  • Donna

    Nicole, I love your recipers, but am finding it very difficult to read them on your website. I have to copy and paste to an email document, then change the color to black in order to read the text. The yellowish color is virtually impossible for me to see, and the light blue is difficult. Could you please use a darker color–dark blue or black–for the text, at least for the recipes? Those of us with older eyes or other eye problems would greatly appreciate it. Thank you.

    • loving this as well.. i do usually enjoy making stuff myself, but, we’re now doing foster care and with a 3.5 year old running me crazy, i really don’t have a whole lot of time for much of anything.. so any short cuts i can take (and that definitely includes buying instead of making a lot of times these days..) are wonderful. I haven’t seen that tortilla brand around here though, so can’t compare to that one.. i will say the ones i’ve found really are kinda terrible when it comes to holding together at all.. i don’t mind pealing.. i do mind crumbling to bits.. i haven’t yet tried my hand at tortillas.. maybe one day i will have some time to try it..

      • gfshoestring

        Crumbling to bits is totally unacceptable, Davina! Rolling out tortillas is actually very easy and not time-consuming at all (except when you compare it to opening up a premade package of them!), so whenever you feel like you can find the time, I don’t think you’ll be disappointed. :)
        xoxo Nicole

    • gfshoestring

      I’m sorry you are having a hard time, Donna, but I have already asked my designer to darken both texts and don’t plan to darken them any further. If you are having trouble seeing the recipe itself, I would suggest clicking ‘print,’ and either printing it out or just viewing it that way. If you are able to, I would also suggest switching your browser to Google Chrome. The type renders amazingly well in Chrome.
      Nicole

  • Donna

    Nicole, I love your recipers, but am finding it very difficult to read them on your website. I have to copy and paste to an email document, then change the color to black in order to read the text. The yellowish color is virtually impossible for me to see, and the light blue is difficult. Could you please use a darker color–dark blue or black–for the text, at least for the recipes? Those of us with older eyes or other eye problems would greatly appreciate it. Thank you.

  • Jessica

    Your homemade tortillas are beautiful (and this series is a great idea).

    A side note–what am I missing about Mission tortillas?  Rather, what about them makes you more concerned about them than the La Banderita brand?  Mission’s are made on dedicated lines per their website.  Just wondering if there’s some conflicting info that I’m missing!

    Love your site!

    • gfshoestring

      Hi, Jessica!
      On the Mission website, it says that their corn tortillas are made in a shared facility with wheat tortillas. I don’t see anything about dedicated machinery or not, just the info about the shared facility.
      Glad you’re into the series!
      xoxo Nicole

  • Kpwinslow

    This is a great idea for new series.  I usually take the quick way out and purchase things.  However, I am trying to eat healthier.  I think this blog will inspire me to go to the kitchen instead of the supermarket!

    Have both of your cookbooks.  Love them.

    • Shawnwolf

      I am still getting the muffins and breads down so I think it will be awhile before I attempt tortillas but I do enjoy reading your new blog series.  As your favorite fan and supporter I would love to see you post something about pie crust.  The brand I use is Red Mill pastry flour and I just add a few ingredients and I haven’t attempted to make my own from scratch yet.  I would love to hear your ideas on make it or buy it!

      • gfshoestring

        Oh are you in luck, Shawn. I have a recipe for a basic pastry crust here on the blog, along with a video where I show you how-to roll out gluten-free pie crust. There are recipes for pies on the blog and in the first cookbook, and I will be posting more pie recipes are we march toward Thanksgiving. I’ve got you covered!
        xoxo Nicole

    • gfshoestring

      Thanks, Kp! Making things at home usually does lead to healthier eating, mostly because of the lack of preservatives when you make it yourself, and because you are simply more mindful of eating. Plus, it saves money and can actually be quite enjoyable! A well-placed store-bought addition is nice to have on hand, too, though, to round out a meal. Thanks so much for picking up a copy of both cookbooks! I really appreciate the support!
      xoxo Nicole

  • Kpwinslow

    This is a great idea for new series.  I usually take the quick way out and purchase things.  However, I am trying to eat healthier.  I think this blog will inspire me to go to the kitchen instead of the supermarket!

    Have both of your cookbooks.  Love them.

  • loving this as well.. i do usually enjoy making stuff myself, but, we’re now doing foster care and with a 3.5 year old running me crazy, i really don’t have a whole lot of time for much of anything.. so any short cuts i can take (and that definitely includes buying instead of making a lot of times these days..) are wonderful. I haven’t seen that tortilla brand around here though, so can’t compare to that one.. i will say the ones i’ve found really are kinda terrible when it comes to holding together at all.. i don’t mind pealing.. i do mind crumbling to bits.. i haven’t yet tried my hand at tortillas.. maybe one day i will have some time to try it..

    • Crumbling to bits is totally unacceptable, Davina! Rolling out tortillas is actually very easy and not time-consuming at all (except when you compare it to opening up a premade package of them!), so whenever you feel like you can find the time, I don’t think you’ll be disappointed. :)
      xoxo Nicole

  • Shawnwolf

    I am still getting the muffins and breads down so I think it will be awhile before I attempt tortillas but I do enjoy reading your new blog series.  As your favorite fan and supporter I would love to see you post something about pie crust.  The brand I use is Red Mill pastry flour and I just add a few ingredients and I haven’t attempted to make my own from scratch yet.  I would love to hear your ideas on make it or buy it!

  • Einsfaith

    Thank you for this posting! my husband and i have been debating over this very subject… As I am lucky enough to have the prep time, we have been working our way through plenty of your recipes. And I am delighted to read this new make or buy it series.THANK YOU!!

  • Marie

    I’ve got your first cookbook and the new one on the way. Can’t wait to
    receive it. Corn tortillas are my bread. Can you fry the homemade ones
    for tostadas? I grew up on them and usually use Mission (guess I won’t
    any more).

    Thank you for your website and cookbooks. My knowledge
    of gluten free things has grown leaps and bounds because of your
    willingness (and gift) to help those with Celiac.

    Marie Butts

  • Marie

    I love your new series.

  • Mellowmood326

    Great info. Thank you for your comparison. I am looking forward to picking up some masa harina.

  • Mellowmood326

    Also, try reheating corn tortillas in a damp paper towel in the microwave for 5 seconds. They steam nicely and stay together well for me.

  • This will be a really useful blog series to me.  I have both your cookbooks (you are my celiac daughter’s food GODDESS) and I would like to try all your recipes but sometimes it’s easier to buy simple things like corn tortillas. I liked the comparison on this particular item because my kid consumes these things like crazy and it appears to be cheaper to just keep store bought packages of them on hand.  Thanks.

  • This will be a useful blog series for me.  I have both your cookbooks (you’re my celiac daughter’s food GODDESS!) and I would like to try all your recipes but sometimes it’s easier to just buy simple items like corn tortillas.  I really liked this particular comparison because my kid goes through tortillas like crazy and it appears to be cheaper to just have a metric ton on hand for the 14 year old bottomless pit. Thanks.

  • Victoria

     I will say, if you’re lucky enough to have access to a Mexican grocery where they make the tortillas onsite on dedicated equipment, you really can’t do better! They’re cheaper than the ones you’d get at a grocery and they are warm and yummy and amazing and…hmmmmm, I think I am having TACOS tonight.

Subscribe
Back to Top